The founder of the philosophical direction "Russian cosmism" is Nikolai Fedorov. His vision of the future of humanity is inextricably linked to the idea of eternal life, supported by the world's religious movements.
In his writings on the philosophy of "common cause" - philosophy of planetary scale, Fedorov developed the idea of immortality of man, which should be achieved in the future, thanks to the development of new qualities of each member of society against the background of scientific and technological progress.
According to the thinker, in the long term the human community should master outer space, because the Earth will not be physically able to accommodate the increased population. However, this will be possible if fraternal relations are established between all members of society and after the resurrection of previous generations through the "regulation of nature."
In other words, when a person evolves, one must achieve the ability to control the elements of the Earth and the cosmos, and "all his activities must express good concern for society."
The Fedorov completely dismissed the need to create weapons as "empty and harmful waste of invaluable resources."
Followers of N.F. Fedorov in the directions of Russian cosmism
The bold hypotheses expressed in the second half of the 19th century did not find support in the scientific world and were recognized as a utopia. But the religious-mystical orientation of Nikolai Fedorov's ideas did not scare away the young scientists and thinkers of the time. Moreover, it was the starting point for the development of new sciences, the fruits of which we enjoy today. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the twentieth century were marked by the works of world-renowned philosophers and representatives of the scientific world, and their works gave rise to new currents in practical research.
The rather rigid framework of the religious-philosophical direction of The Cosmism of Fedorov could not stop the searches of Nikolai Roerich, who did not agree with the dominant role of the technocratic development of mankind and saw the future in the comprehension of hidden spiritual possibilities. So the mystical current was developed.
One of Roerich's predecessors was the playwright A.V. Sukhov-Kobilin. The work "The Teaching of the Almy," on which the author worked for twenty years, defines three levels of development: from the man of the earth to the incarnation of the infinite spiritual Almy.
The influence of the mind on inanimate nature was the subject of deep research by V.I. Vernadsky and V.S. Solovyov. The teachings on the bio- and noosphere formed the basis of the noospheric current of Russian cosmism. Realizing the importance of the present moment in the chain of evolutionary events, Vernadsky raised the question of humanity's responsibility for the state and preservation of the world around him.
In the 20th century, the contribution of representatives of the scientific current to theoretical and applied physics was a real breakthrough in the development of engineering and technical thought.
The father of cosmonautics Konstantin Tsiolkovsky at the dawn of his youth took the ideas of N.F. Fedorov about the development of outer space as his own mission. Its scientific justification for overcoming the terrestrial gravity formed the basis of theoretical cosmonautics.
If the scientific directions set by Tsiolkovsky are recognized and picked up by followers, the research of A. L. Chizhevsky during the life of the scientist was declared quackery. Society was not ready to accept the facts of the influence of celestial bodies not only on the physical condition and psyche of man, but also on the course of global social phenomena. His work "The Physical Factor of the Historical Process" to this day arouses the interest of experts. The talented historian and biophysicist devoted most of his life to the study of heliobiology - the influence of solar activity on the biosphere.
The ideas of Valerian Ant, who considered the use of time as a physical resource, were not understood.
It is quite natural that the development of Russian cosmism was reflected in the artistic and literary course of the first third of the twentieth century. Unforgettable novels and stories by Alexander Belyaev reminded the reader of the inviolability of moral and ethical norms at all stages of the development of scientific heights. Poets Valery Bruceov, Velimir Khlebnikov, Alexander Block, Andrei White addressed their works not just to the man of the future, but to the whole world.
A little later, Nikolai zabolotsky will write:
"No wonder, perfecting from the century, reasonable nature in its turn
She creates herself with the hands of a man from the age-old ashes."
The artistic canvases of abstractionists of the early 20th century, painted under the influence of cosmism, literally make the viewer contemplate the future. It is enough to recall the works of Nikolai Roerich, Pavel Filonov, Vasily Kandinsky.
I would like to draw attention to the fact that the vast majority of followers of N.F. Fedorov are bright representatives of the Russian intelligentsia, who graduated not only from the philosophical, but also physics and mathematics faculties, endowed with the writer's gift and talent as a painter. Many of them knew each other well. In the circles of the Fedorovs there was support and mutual understanding.
Russian cosmism in the second half of the 20th century
In the thirties of the last century, interest in the teachings of Fedorov gradually faded due to repeated attempts to associate it with Marxism. At the same time, the political situation within the country and the half-century-old ordeal did not contribute to the development of the "project philosophy".
Only after the conquest of near-Earth space in the late 60's began a rapid revival of cosmism, which at that time received the first confirmation of the hypotheses of Vernadsky, Tsiolkovsky, Chizhevsky. It was during this period that the definition of "Russian cosmism" appeared.
Prospects of distant interstellar wanderings, subordination of the natural element and development of human capabilities stirred minds, gave the ground to new research. Inspired by freedom and success, the generation of the sixties made a new technological breakthrough on the road to a brighter future. Young students, engineers, scientists were read novels by Ivan Efremov, Arkady and Boris Strugatsky.
According to most modern philosophers, the definition of cosmism is closely related to the prospects for fantastic projects, the main idea of which is to achieve universal equality and well-being.
Today, The Russian cosmism of The Russian Community has become an element of practical philosophy, which challenges humanity to develop.